Common Poultry Diseases

 Common Poultry Diseases

a.       Avian Pest (New Castle Disease)

Cause:  Virus

Transmission:

·         Direct contact with the nasal and mouth discharges of infected birds

·         Airborne transmission

·         Mechanical means such as being carried by sparrows (maya), predators or other birds

·         Human beings can also transmit the disease through infected clothes and shoes

Signs:

·         For young birds – gasping, coughing, rattling of the windpipe, hoarse chirping, paralysis, walking backyard and circling

·         For adults – coughing and occasional paralysis, abrupt drop in egg production, soft-shelled eggs, and greenish, watery-diarrhea

Prevention:

·         Vaccination. Consult your veterinarian for a program suited to your operation.

Treatment:

·         There is no treatment for the disease

·         In case of an outbreak, the following measures could be adopted to minimize its further spread and control the disease:

ü       Isolate sick birds quickly

ü       Quarantine the area by regulating persons entering the disease-affected premises or from other farms as well as from one poultry house to another

ü       Revaccination of the birds if titer (detected by serological test) is already low

ü       Thoroughly disinfect the houses and premises. Allow to dry before occupancy.

ü       Bury or burn dead birds.

b.      Chronic Respiratory Disease (CRD)

Cause:  Mycoplasma organism or pleuropneumonia-like organism (PPLO)

Transmission:

·         CRD organism or is egg-borne; contracted exposure with infected flock

·         Airborne transmission

Signs:

·         Tracheal rales, sneezing coughing watery or sticky discharged from the nostrils

·         Foamy exudates in the eyes

·         Feed consumption is reduced and the birds lose weight

Treatment:

·         Broad spectrum antibiotics, either by injection or mixed with feeds or drinking water

c.       Coccidiosis

Cause:  Microscopic organisms called coccidian (Eimeria species) which usually occurs in flocks below two months of age.

Transmission:

·         When birds pick up or swallow the coccidial organisms

·         Contaminated feed and water

·         Indirect contact thru flies, human beings and other mechanical means

Signs:

·         Tendency to huddle together in a corner

·         Decrease feed and water intake and poor weight gain

Prevention:

·         Incorporation of coccidiostat in the feeds or drinking water. Use of sulfa drugs. Most feed companies incorporate this in the feed mixture as indicated in the feed tags

d.      Mareks Disease

Cause:  Virus

Transmission:

·         Exposure to infected birds or to environment with existing virus, poultry nests and feeders

Signs:

·         Initial symptoms are leg weakness and paralysis of one or both legs

·         Birds tend to rest on their breast with one leg extended forward and the other backward

·         They could hardly reached the feeders and the waterers resulting in the dehydration and emancipation which finally cause death

Prevention:

·         Vaccination with MD vaccine, the most commonly used is the so called Herpes virus of Turkey (HVT)

e.      Avian Malaria

Cause:  Microscopic Protozoan Parasite

Transmission:

·         Bites of mosquitoes, mechanically by blood transfer as in mass vaccination, caponization and injection

Signs:

·         Severe anemia (paleness) extreme leg weakness, emancipation and nervous signs like twisting of the head

·         The shanks and the toes are dry and birds have ruffled feathers

·         Greenish-yellow or greenish white diarrhea

Prevention:

·         Control if mosquitoes within the premises and houses with effective insecticides, include spraying the breeding places of mosquitoes. Proper drainage of stagnant water

Treatment:

·         Anti malarial drops like plasmochin, quinine hydrochloride and pyrimethamine combinations were found effective. Confer with the veterinarians.

Source: www.bar.gov.ph